Temperature anomalies from 1961-1990, for a 5° by
5° grid. These data sets are from the Climate
Research Unit website. Over land regions of the world over 3000 monthly station
temperature time series are used. Coverage is denser over the more populated
parts of the world, particularly, the United States, southern Canada, Europe and
Japan. Coverage is sparsest over the interior of the South American and African
continents and over the Antarctic. The number of available stations was small
during the 1850s, but increases to over 3000 stations during the 1951-90 period.
For marine regions sea surface temperature (SST) measurements taken on board
merchant and some naval vessels are used. As the majority come from the
voluntary observing fleet, coverage is reduced away from the main shipping lanes
and is minimal over the Southern Oceans. Maps/tables giving the density of
coverage through time are given for land regions by Jones and Moberg (2003) and
for the oceans by Rayner et al. (2003). Both these sources also
extensively discuss the issue of consistency and homogeneity of the measurements
through time and the steps that have made to ensure all non-climatic
inhomogeneities have been removed.
Christy, J.R., Parker,
D.E., Stendel. M. and Norris, W.B., 2001: Differential trends in tropical sea
surface temperature and atmospheric temperatures since 1979. Geophysical
Research Letters 28, 183-186.
- Folland, C.K., Rayner, N.A., Brown, S.J., Smith, T.M., Shen, S.S.P.,
Parker, D.E., Macadam, I., Jones, P.D., Jones, R.N., Nicholls, N. and Sexton,
D.M.H., 2001a: Global temperature change and its uncertainties since 1861. Geophysical
Research Letters 28, 2621-2624.
- Folland, C.K., Karl, T.R., Christy, J.R., Clarke, R.A., Gruza, G.V.,
Jouzel, J., Mann, M.E., Oerlemans, J., Salinger, M.J. and Wang, S.-W., 2001b:
Observed Climate Variability and Change. pp. 99-181 In: Climate Change 2001:
The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment
Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Houghton, J.T.,
Ding, Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., van der Linden, P.J., Dai, X., Maskell, K.
and Johnson, C.A. Eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 881pp.
- Jones, P.D., Osborn, T.J. and Briffa, K.R., 1997: Estimating
sampling errors in large-scale temperature averages. J. Climate 10,
- Jones, P.D., New, M., Parker, D.E., Martin, S. and Rigor, I.G.,
1999: Surface air temperature and its variations over the last 150 years. Reviews
of Geophysics 37, 173-199.
- Jones, P.D., Osborn, T.J., Briffa, K.R., Folland, C.K., Horton, B.,
Alexander, L.V., Parker, D.E. and Rayner, N.A., 2001: Adjusting for sampling
density in grid-box land and ocean surface temperature time series. J.
Geophys. Res. 106, 3371-3380.
- Jones, P.D. and Moberg, A., 2003: Hemispheric and large-scale
surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2001.
J. Climate 16, 206-223.
- Rayner, N.A., Parker, D.E., Horton, E.B., Folland, C.K., Alexander,
L.V, Rowell, D.P., Kaplan, A. and Kent, E.C., 2003: Globally complete analyses
of sea surface temperature, sea ice and night marine air temperature, 1871-2000.
J. Geophys. Res. (in press).
- Crutem2: land air temperature anomalies, 5° by 5°
- Crutem2:land air temperature anomalies, adjusted for variance (Details of
adjustment in Jones et. al. 2001)
- HadCrut2: combined land and marine temperature anomalies, 5°
by 5° grid
- (For details see Rayner et. al. 2003)
- HadCrut2: HadCrut2 adjusted for variance
- Data is in netCDF format.
These data sets are produced by Phil Jones of the Climatic
Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia, United Kingdom. They
are also updated monthly at the above site.