The Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) is the most extensive collection of surface marine data available for the world ocean over the past two centuries. Measures parameters such as air temperature, sea level pressure, sea surface temperature, scalar wind, specific and relative humidity, and heat parameters.

Spatial Coverage:

89N-89S (by 2.0), 1E-359E (by 2.0)

Temporal Coverage:

1° x 1° 1960-1997

2° x 2° 1800-1997

Scientific Research/Reference:

  • S.D. Woodruff, H.F. Diaz, J.D. Elms, and S.J. Worley, 1998: Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.23, No. 5-6, pp. 517-526
  • Slutz, R.J., S.J. Lubker, J.D. Hiscox, S.D. Woodruff, R.L. Jenne, D.H. Joseph, P.M. Steurer, and J.D. Elms, 1985: Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set; Release 1. NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Climate Research Program, Boulder, CO, 268 pp. (NTIS PB86-105723).
  • Woodruff, S.D. (Ed.), 1986: Proceedings of a COADS Workshop, Boulder, Colorado, January 22-24, 1986. NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Climate Research Program, Boulder, CO, 218 pp.
  • Woodruff, S.D., R.J. Slutz, R.L. Jenne, and P.M. Steurer, 1987: A comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68, 1239-1250.
  • Diaz, H.F., K. Wolter, and S.D. Woodruff (Eds.), 1992: Proceedings of the International COADS Workshop, Boulder, Colorado, 13-15 January 1992. NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Climate Research Division, Boulder, CO, 390 pp.
  • Woodruff, S.D.,S.J. Lubker, K. Wolter, S.J. Worley, and J.D. Elms, 1993: Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) Release 1a: 1980-92. Earth System Monitor, 4, No. 1, 1-8.
  • Elms, J.D., S.D. Woodruff, S.J. Worley, and C. Hanson, 1993: Digitizing Historical Records for the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS). Earth System Monitor, 4, No. 2, 4-10.
  • Diaz, H.F. and H.-J. Isemer (Eds.), 1995: Proceedings of the International COADS Winds Workshop, Kiel, Germany, 31 May-2 June 1994. NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, CO, and Institut für Meereskunde, Kiel, 301 pp.
  • Woodruff, S.D., H.F. Diaz, J.D. Elms, and S.J. Worley, 1998: COADS Release 2 data and metadata enhancements for improvements of marine surface flux fields. Phys. Chem. Earth, 23, 517-527.
  • Diaz, H.F., and S.D. Woodruff (Eds.), 1999: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Digitization and Preparation of Historical Surface Marine Data and Metadata (Toledo, Spain, 15-17 September 1997). WMO/TD-No.957, MMROA Report No. 43, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 114 pp.
  • Woodruff, S.D, 2001: COADS updates including newly digitized data and the blend with the UK Meteorological Office Marine Data Bank and Quality control in recent COADS updates. Proceedings of Workshop on Preparation, Processing and Use of Historical Marine Meteorological Data, Tokyo, Japan, 28-29 November 2000, Japan Meteorological Agency and the Ship & Ocean Foundation, 9-13 and 49-53.
  • Diaz, H., C. Folland, T. Manabe, D. Parker, R. Reynolds, and S. Woodruff, 2002: Workshop on Advances in the Use of Historical Marine Climate Data. WMO Bulletin, 51, 377-380. (pdf; 690KB) (improved resolution maps: pdf; 2MB)


1° by 1°


2° by 2°


Data is in netCDF format

COADS data provided by the NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, Colorado, USA, from their Web site at