English 

 

已发表论文

学术期刊论文:

  1. Shen, S. S. P., A. B. Gurung, H.-S. Oh, T. Shu, and D. R. Easterling, 2011: The 20th century contiguous US climate changes indicated by daily data and higher statistical moments, Climatic Change , DOI 10. 1007/s10584-011-0033-9.
  2. Donahue, A. and S. S. P. Shen, 2010: Stability of hydraulic fall and sub-critical cnoidal waves in water flows over a bump, J. Engineering Mathematics , DOI: 10. 1007/s10665-010-9371-2.
  3. Field, R. D., G. R. van der Werf, and S. S. P. Shen, 2009: Human amplification induced biomass burning in Indonesia since 1960, Nature (Geoscience), doi: of drought- 10:1038/NGEO443. [With the title on the cover of the issue, and a backstory at the end of the issue. ]
  4. Rupp, A. J., B. Bailey, S. S. P. Shen, C. K. Lee, and B. S. Strachan, 2009: An error analysis for the hybrid gridding of Texas daily precipitation data, Intl J. Climatology 29, doi: 10. 1002/joc. 1917.
  5. Field, R. D., and S. S. P. Shen, 2008: Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006, J. Geophys. Res . 113, G04024, doi:10. 1029/2008JG000694.
  6. Lee, C. K., S. S. P. Shen, B. Bailey, and G. R. North, 2008: Factor analysis for El Nino signals in sea surface temperature and precipitation, Theo. Applied. Climatology 94, doi: 10. 1007/s00704-008-0056-y.
  7. Shen, S. S. P., H. Yin, and T. M. Smith, 2007: An estimate of the error variance of the gridded GHCN monthly surface air temperature data, J. Climate 20, 2321-2331.
  8. Mwale, D., T. Y. Gan, S. S. P. Shen, T. Shu, and K.-M. Kim, 2007: Wavelet empirical orthogonal functions of space-time-frequency regimes and predictability of southern Africa summer rainfall, ASCE J. Hydrologic Engineering 12, 513-521.
  9. Wang, A., X. B. Zeng, S. S. P. Shen, Q. C. Zeng, and R. E. Dickinson, 2006: Time scales of land surface hydrology, J. Hydrometeorology 7, 868-879.
  10. Lau, K. M., S. S. P. Shen, K.-M. Kim, and H. Wang, 2006: A multi-model study of the 20th century simulations of Sahel drought from the 1970s to 1990s, J. Geophys. Res. 111, D07111, doi:10. 1029/2005JD006281.
  11. Basist, A., R. Hult, S. S. P. Shen, N. Thomas, and M. Basist, 2006: Microwave imaging that predicts yields, Futures magazine feature article, September issue, 50-54. (Also on the cover page of this issue. )
  12. Shen, S. S. P., 2006: Statistical procedures for estimating and detecting climate changes, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 23, 61-68.
  13. Zeng, X. D., A. Wang, Q. C. Zeng, R. E. Dickenson, X. B. Zeng, and S. S. P. Shen, 2006: Intermediate complex models for the hydrological interactions in the atmosphere-vegetation-soil system, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 23, 127-140.
  14. Zeng, Q. C., X. D. Zeng, A. Wang, R. E. Dickinson, X. B. Zeng, and S. S. P. Shen, 2005: Some studies of the hydrological intereactions in the atmosphere-soil system, Chinese J. Atmospheric Sciences 29, 7-19.
  15. Zeng, X. D., X. B. Zeng, S. S. P. Shen, R. E. Dickenson, and Q. C. Zeng, 2005: Vegetation-soil water interaction within a dynamical ecosystem model of grassland in semi-arid areas, Tellus 57B, 189-202.
  16. Shen, S. S. P., H. Yin, K. Cannon, A. Howard, S. Chetner, and T. R. Karl, 2005: Temporal and spatial changes of agroclimate in Alberta during 1901-2002, J. Appl. Meteo. 44, 1090-1105.
  17. Lu, H., S. S. P. Shen, and J. Huang, 2005: Characteristics of the 500hPa signal field for the rainstorms over the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River, China, Acta Meteorologica 63, 333-341.
  18. Zhou, Y., S. Gao, and S. S. P. Shen, 2004: A diagnostic study of formation and structures of the Meiyu front system over East Asia, J. Meteo. Soc. Japan 82, 1565-1576.
  19. Mwale, D., T. Y. Gan, and S. S. P. Shen, 2004: A new analysis on variability and predictability of seasonal rainfall of central southern Africa for 1950-94, Int. J. Climatology 24, 1509-1530.
  20. Mei, M., J. So, M. Y. Li, and S. S. P. Shen, 2004: Asymptotic stability of traveling waves for Nicholson’s blowflies equation with diffusion. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 134A, 579-594.
  21. Zeng, X. D., S. S. P. Shen, X. Zeng, and R. E. Dickinson, 2004: Multiple equilibrium states and the abrupt transitions in a dynamical system of soil water interacting with vegetation, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L05501-4. [Reply to comments, 2005: Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L09403. doi:10. 10. 1029/2004GL022339. ]
  22. Zeng, X. D., A. Wang, G. Zhao, S. S. P. Shen, X. Zeng, and Q.-C. Zeng, 2004: Ecological dynamic model of grassland and its practical verification, Science in China C34, 481-486.
  23. Shen, S. S. P., A. N. Basist, G. Li, C. Williams, and T. R. Karl, 2004: Prediction of sea surface temperature from the Global Historical Climatology Network data, Environmetrics 15, 233-249.
  24. Zheng, Q., S. S. P. Shen, Y. Yuan, N. E. Huang, V. Klemas, X-. H. Yan, F. Shi, X. Zhang, Z. Zhao, X. Li, and P. Clemente-Colon, 2004: Evidence of the coexistence of upstream and downstream solitary wavetrains in the real atmosphere, International Journal of Remote Sensing 25, 4433-4440. (Also the cover page of the International Journal of Remote Sensing 25, No. 21, 4431 (2004)).
  25. Huang, N. E., M. L. Wu, W. Qu, S. R. Long, and S. S. P. Shen, 2003: Applications of Hilbert-Huang transform to non-stationary financial time series analysis, Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry 19, 245-268.
  26. Huang, N. E., M. L. Wu, S. R. Long, S. S. P. Shen, W. Qu, P. Gloersen, and K. L. Fan, 2003: A confidence limit for the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert spectral analysis, Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. A 459, 2317-2345.
  27. He, Y., Y. Lin, S. S. P. Shen, and R. Tait, 2003: Finite element approximation for viscoelastic fluid motion problem, J. Computational and Appl. Math. 155, 201-222.
  28. Shen, Y. D., L. Y. Yuan, J. You, S. S. P. Shen, and Q. Yang, 2003: A dynamic approach to characterizing termination of general logic programs. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic 4, 417-430.
  29. Lau, W. K. M., K. M. Kim, and S. S. P. Shen, 2002: Potential predictability of seasonal precipitation over the United States from canonical ensemble correlation predictions, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10. 1029.
  30. Shen, S. S. P., K. M. Lau, K-. M. Kim, G. Li, and A. Basist, 2002: Formulation of the canonical ensemble correlation prediction for seasonal precipitation, Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sci. 26, 114-140.
  31. He, Y., Y. Lin, S. S. P. Shen, and R. Tait, 2002: On the convergence of viscoelastic fluid flows to a steady state, Advances in Differential Equations 7, 717-742.
  32. North, G. R., S. S. P. Shen and A. Basist, 2002: Global warming, in Encyclopedia of Environmentrics, John Wiley, New York, pp. 928-933.
  33. North, G. R., and S. S. P. Shen, 2002: Global circulation, in Encyclopedia of Environmentrics, John Wiley, New York, pp. 906-920.
  34. Basist, A., C. Williams, N. Grody, T. Ross, and S. S. P. Shen, 2002: Soil wetness index, in Encyclopedia of Environmentrics, John Wiley, New York, pp. 2029-2033.
  35. Shen, S. S. P., B. Shen, C. T. Ong, and Z. T. Xu, 2002: Collision of uniform soliton trains in asymmetric systems, Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems B9, 131-138.
  36. Shen, S. S. P., P. Dzikowski, G. Li, and D. Griffith, 2001: Interpolation of 1961-1997 daily climate data onto Alberta polygons of ecodistrict and soil landscape of Canada, J. Applied Meteo. 40, 2162-2177.
  37. Basist, A., C. Williams, N. Grody, T. Ross, S. S. P. Shen, A. Chang, R. Ferraro, and M. Menne, 2001: Using the Special Sensor Microwave Imager to monitor surface wetness, J. Hydrometeorology 2, 297-308.
  38. Folland, C. K., N. A. Rayner, S. J. Brown, T. M. Smith, S. S. P. Shen, D. E. Parker, I. Macadam, P. D. Jones, R. N. Jones, N. Nicholls, and D. M. H. Sexton, 2001: Global temperature change and its uncertainties since 1861, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2621-2624.
  39. Shen, S. S. P., T. B. Moodie, and B. Shen, 2000: Interpretation of stability and instability of the solitary waves in a forced Korteweg-de Vries system, Canadian Appl. Math. Quarterly 8, 293-303.
  40. Xu, Z., H. Xu, and S. S. P. Shen, 2000: Tailing wavetrain generation in precursor soliton generation in single-layer flow, Progress in Natural Science 10, 350-356.
  41. Wang, X., and S. S. P. Shen, 1999: Estimation of spatial degrees of freedom of a climate field, J. Climate 12, 1280-1291.
  42. Shen, S. S. P., and G. R. North, 1999: A simple proof of the slope stability theorem for energy balance climate model, Canadian Appl. Math. Quarterly 7, 203-215.
  43. Shen, S. S. P., T. M. Smith, C. F. Ropelewski, and R. E. Livezey, 1998: An optimal regional averaging method with error estimates and a test using tropical Pacific SST data, J. Climate 11, 2340-2350.
  44. Smith, T. M., R. E. Livezey, and S. S. P. Shen, 1998: An improved method for interpolating sparse and irregularly distributed data onto a regular grid, J. Climate 11, 1717-1729.
  45. Shen, S. S. P., and S. Zhang, 1998: A quantitative study on the stability of quadratic delay difference systems, Computers and Mathematics with Applications 35, 1-16.
  46. Zwiers, F. W., and S. S. P. Shen, 1997: Errors in estimating spherical harmonic coefficients from partially sampled GCM output, Climate Dyn. 13, 703-716.
  47. Shen, S. S. P., and X. Wang, 1997: Optimal average of regional temperature with sampling error estimation, Atmosphere and Ocean 35, 147-160.
  48. Li, T.-H., G. R. North, and S. S. P. Shen, 1997: Aliased power of a stochastic temperature field on a sphere, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4475-4486.
  49. Xu, Z., and S. S. P. Shen, 1997: Physical universals in problem of precursor soliton generation, Science in China 40, 306-314.
  50. Shen, S. S. P., 1996: Energy distribution for waves in transcritical flows over a bump, Wave Motion 23, 39-48.
  51. Kim, K.-Y., G. R. North, and S. S. P. Shen, 1996: Optimal estimation of spherical harmonic components from a sample with spatially nonuniform covariance statistics, J. Climate 9, 635-645.
  52. Shen, S. S. P., G. R. North, and K.-Y. Kim, 1996: Optimal estimation of the spherical harmonic components of the surface air temperature, Environmetrics 7, 261-276.
  53. Shen, S. S. P., R. P. Manohar, and L. Gong, 1995: Stability of the lower cusped solitary waves, Phys. Fluids A 7, 2507-2509.
  54. North, G. R., K. Y. Kim, S. S. P. Shen, and J. W. Hardin, 1995: Detection of forced climate signals, Part I: theory, J. Climate 8, 401-408.
  55. Shen, S. S. P., 1995: On the accuracy of the stationary forced Korteweg-de Vries equation as a model equation for flows over a bump, Quarterly Appl. Math. 53, 701-719.
  56. Shen, S. S. P., X. Wang, Y. Liang, and R. Li, 1995: Optimal weight scheme for averaging regional temperature I: Theoretical analysis, China Science Bulletin A 40, 1351-1356.
  57. Mazzoleni, A. P., and S. S. P. Shen, 1995: The product of chord lengths of a circle, Mathematics Magazine 68, 59-60.
  58. Shen, S. S. P., G. R. North, and K. Y. Kim, 1994: Spectral approach to optimal estimation of the global average temperature, J. Climate 7, 1999-2007.
  59. Shen, S. S. P., 1994: A simple model of reproductive mass spreading, Canadian Appl. Math. Quarterly 2, 395-412.
  60. North, G. R., J. B. Valdes, E. Ha, and S. S. P. Shen, 1994: The ground truth problem for satellite estimates of rain rate, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech 11, 1035-1041.
  61. Gong, L., and S. S. P. Shen, 1994: Multiple supercritical solitary wave solutions of the stationary forced Korteweg-de Vries equation and their stability, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 54, 1268-1290.
  62. Wang, Y., S. S. P. Shen and H. Cheng, 1994: Evolution of the plastic zone near a hydraulic fracture: a numerical simulation and its implications, Canadian Geotech. J. 31, 779-787.
  63. Shen, S. S. P., and L. Gong, 1993: Solitary waves on a shelf, Phys. Fluids A 5, 1071-1073.
  64. North, G. R., S. S. P. Shen, and R. B. Upson, 1993: Sampling errors in rainfall measurements by multiple satellites, J. Appl. Meteor. 32, 399-410.
  65. Graves, C. E., J. B. Valdes, S. S. P. Shen, and G. R. North, 1993: Evaluation of sampling errors of precipitation from space-borne and ground sensors, J. Appl. Meteor. 32, 374-385.
  66. Shen, S. S. P., 1992: Forced solitary waves and hydraulic falls in two-layer flows, J. Fluid Mech. 234, 583-612.
  67. North, G. R., S. S. P. Shen, and J. W. Hardin, 1992: Estimation of the global mean temperature with point gauges, Environmetrics 3, 1-14.
  68. Hardin, J. W., G. R. North, and S. S. P. Shen, 1992: Minimum error estimates of global mean temperature through optimal arrangement of gauges, Environmetrics 3, 15-27.
  69. North, G. R., S. S. P. Shen, and R. B. Upson, 1991: Combining raingages with satellite measurements for optimal estimates of area-time averaged rainrates, Water Resources Res. 27, 2785-2790.
  70. Shen, S. S. P., 1991: Locally forced critical surface waves in channels of arbitrary cross section, J. Appl. Math. Phys. ZAMP 42, 122-138.
  71. Shen, S. S. P., 1990: Blocking of solitary pulses in a nonlinear fiber, Wave Motion 12, 551-557.
  72. Shen, S. S. P., and M. C. Shen, 1990: On a limit of subcritical free-surface flow over an obstruction, Acta Mechanica 82, 225-230.
  73. Shen, S. S. P., and W. L. Perry, 1990: An example of toxic mass spreading, Appl. Sci. Res. 47, 323-339.
  74. Valdes, J., S. Nakamoto, S. S. P. Shen, and G. R. North, 1990: Estimation of multidimensional precipitation parameters by areal estimates of oceanic rainfall, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2101-2111.
  75. Shen, S. S. P., and M. C. Shen, 1990: A new equilibrium of subcritical flow over an obstruction in a channel of arbitrary cross section, Eur. J. Mech. (B/Fluids) 9, 59-74.
  76. Shen, S. S. P., 1989: Disturbed critical surface waves in a channel of arbitrary cross section, ZAMP J. Appl. Math. Phys. 40, 216-229.
  77. Shen, S. S. P., M. C. Shen and S. M. Sun, 1989: A model equation for steady surface waves over a bump, J. Engr. Math. 23, 315-323.
  78. Shen, S. S. P., 1987: A note on the paper “a table of the special solutions of plane elasticity problems in polar coordinates” by Pan Lizhou, Mechanics and Its Practices 20, 43-44.
  79. Shen, S. S. P., and M. C. Shen, 1986: On a Korteweg-de Vries equation with variable coefficients in cylindrical coordinates, Phys. Fluids 29, 1759-1760.
  80. Shen, S. S. P., 1985: A simple derivation of rigid-rotation formula, Euro. J. Phys. 6, 96-97.
  81. Shen, S. S. P., 1981: Some characteristics of the distribution of velocity and acceleration vectors of a rigid body, J. East China Engineering Institute 19, 53-59.
  82. Shen, S. S. P., 1980: A new derivation of the equilibrium equations of elasticity in curvilinear coordinates, J. East China Engineering Institute 18, 189-212.
  83. Shen, S. S. P., B. Kramps, S. X. Sun, and B. Bailey, 2011: An approach to quatify the heat wave strength and price a heat wave derivative for risk hedging, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, submitted.
  84. Shen, S. S. P., M. Bantle, A. S. Donahue, R. Wong, and C. K. Lee, 2011: Sampling error estimate for acid deposition monitoring network assessment over Alberta, Canada, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, submitted.
  85. Shen, S. S. P., C. K. Lee, and J. Lawrimore, 2011: Uncertainties, trends, and hottest and coldest years of US surface air temperature since 1895: an update based on the USHCN V2 data, J. Clim., to be submitted.
  86. Shen, S. S. P., J.-Y. Lee, and K. M. Lau, A Bayesian approach to the confidence interval of the optimal blend of satellite and ground observations, SIAM J. Appl. Math. (to be submitted).
  87. Shen, S. S. P., T. Shu, T. R. Karl, and D. R. Easterling, Defining nonlinear and non-stationary annual cycle using Empirical Mode Decomposition, Geophys. Res. Lett. (to be submitted).
  88. Shen, S. S. P., H. Yin, T. R. Karl, and A. Howard, PPCI as a drought indicator in Alberta, Canada, Geophys. Res. Lett. (to be submitted).

专著:

  1. CHuang, N. E. and S. S. P. Shen (ed. ), 2005: Hilbert-Huang Transform and Its Applications, World Scientific, 360pp.
  2. Chetner, S., and the Agroclimatic Atlas Working Group, 2003: Agroclimatic Atlas of Alberta, 1971 to 2000. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Agdex071-1, Edmonton, Alberta, 89pp. (S. S. P. Shen is a lead scientist in the Working Group. )
  3. Shen, S. S. P., 1995: Climate Sampling Errors, Lecture Notes at University of Tokyo, 74pp.
  4. Shen, S. S. P., 1993: A Course on Nonlinear Waves, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 327pp.

会议论文及书籍章节:

  1. Shen, S. S. P., T. Shu, N. E. Huang, Z. Wu, T. R. Karl, and D. R. Easterling, 2005: HHT analysis of the nonlinear and non-stationary annual cycle of daily surface air temperature data, in the book entitled “Hilbert-Huang Transform and Its Applications, ” edited by N. E. Huang and S. S. P. Shen, World Scientific, pp. 187-210.
  2. Shen, S. S. P., 2004: A recipe for estimation and detection of climate changes. Proceedings of the 3rd International Ocean-Atmosphere Conference, Beijing, A2. 5: 1-9.
  3. Shen, S. S. P., Q. Zheng, S. Gao, Z. Xu, and C. T. Ong, 2004: Wu’s mass postulate and approximate solutions of the fKdV equation. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Vancouver, 288-297.
  4. Shen, B., D. Koval, and S. S. P. Shen, 1999: Modelling extreme-weather-related transmission line outages, in Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, May 1999, Edmonton, 1271-1276.
  5. Shen, S. S. P., 1998: Optimal estimation of climate parameters and climate data reconstruction, in Proceedings of the Section on Statistics and the Environment, American Statistical Association, 1998, 28-32.
  6. Shen, S. S. P., 1996: Forced evolution equations and detection of climate change. In Differential Equations and Control Theory: Proceedings of the International Conference on Differential Equations and Control Theory, May 1994, Wuhan, China, ed. by Z. Deng, Z. Liang, G. Lu and S. Ruan, 255-270.
  7. Shen, S. S. P., G. R. North, and J. W. Hardin, 1993: Estimation of the global average temperature, in Mathematics, Climate and Environment: Proceedings of the Summer Course on Mathematics, Climate and Environment, August 1991, Madrid, ed. by J.-I. Diaz and J.-L. Lions, 307-315.
  8. Shen, S. S. P., 1993: Forced long critical surface waves in channels, In Free Boundary Problems in Fluid Flow with Applications: Proceedings of Vth International Conference on Free Boundary Problems, June 1990, Montreal, ed. by J. M. Chadam and H. Rasmusen, 388-394.
  9. Shen, S. S. P., G. R. North, and J. W. Hardin, 1992: Sampling errors in estimating the global temperature with point gauges: data analysis and network planning, In Using Hydrometric Data to Detect & Monitor Climatic Change: Proceedings of the NHRI Workshop on Using Hydrometric Data to Detect & Monitor Climatic Change, April 1992, Saskatoon, ed. by G. W. Kite and K. D. Harvey, 33-42.
  10. Shen, S. S. P., M. C. Shen, and S. M. Sun, 1989: Supercritical and subcritical solutions of a model equation for steady surface waves over a bump, In Continuum Mechanics and Its Applications: Proceedings of the IXth Annual Meeting of Canadian Applied Mathematics Society, June 1988, Burnaby, ed. by G. A. C. Graham and S. K. Malik, 399-410.

为政府提供的技术报告:

  1. Shen, S. S. P., 2009: The design and assessment of the acid deposition monitoring networks in Alberta, Alberta Environment, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 39pp.
  2. Shen, S. S. P., B. Shen, N. Newland, T. Yang, H. Hill, and A. Howard, 2005: Interpolating daily precipitation and temperature data on a regular grid in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/National Agroclimate Information Service, 90pp.
  3. Shen, S. S. P., A. B. Gurung, H.-S. Oh, T. Shu, and D. R. Easterling, 2005: An assessment of the contiguous US climate change by higher statistical moments and GDCN data from 1901 to 2000. NOAA National Climatic Data Center, 82pp.
  4. Shen, S. S. P., 2004: Conceptual design of the AAFC national agroclimate data system, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/National Agroclimate Information Service, 48pp.
  5. Shen, S. S. P., H. Yin, K. Cannon, A. Howard, S. Chetner, and T. R. Karl, 2004: Temporal and spatial changes of the Algroclimate in Alberta from 1901-2002, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 49pp.
  6. Shen, S. S. P., A. Howard, H. Yin, F. Khurshed, and M. Akbar, 2003: Statistical analysis of drought indices and Alberta drought monitoring, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 46pp.
  7. Shen, S. S. P., K. M. Lau, K. M. Kim, and G. Li, 2001: A canonical ensemble correlation prediction model for seasonal precipitation anomaly, NASA Technical Memorandum, NASA-TM-2001-209989, 53pp.
  8. Shen, S. S. P., and K. Cannon, 2000: Alberta 1961-1997 climate data on EDP and SLC polygons: data derivatives and data formation for soil quality models, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 38pp.
  9. Shen, S. S. P., P. Dzikowski, and G. Li, 2000: Interpolation of 1961-1997 daily climate data onto Alberta polygons of ecodistrict and soil landscape of Canada, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 43pp.
  10. Shen, S. S. P., 1999: An optimal assessment of Alberta climate change, Alberta Environment, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 39pp.
  11. Shen, S. S. P., 1999: Methods of spatial interpolation of climatic data onto ecodistrict and SLC polygons, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 28pp.
  12. Shen, S. S. P., 1994: An optimal program for averaging regional temperature anomalies, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 25pp.